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Essential Amino Acids
Chia Omega 3 Oil
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Science & Research

Healthy Brain Food & Immune System

The Foundation of the Research: Blum & Braverman
Origin of the Proprietary Essential Amino Acids Formula

The Essential Amino Acids formulation was born out of research conducted by Kenneth Blum, PhD and Eric Braverman, MD. Dr. Blum is a world-renowned pioneer in genetic research, best known for his clinical research discovering the “alcoholism gene”, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). Dr. Braverman is the director of the PATH Medical Center in New York City and an an anti-aging expert who has focused much of his research on the positive effects of amino acids in the human brain.


(Note: It is considered highly unethical for researchers to be affiliated with products or seek financial gain from their clinical studies, hence, neither Dr. Blum nor Dr. Braverman are affiliated with BaselineHPT or Genesis Nutraceuticals.)


Much of the research by Dr. Blum and Dr. Braverman is focused around addiction and hyperactivity disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In particular, Blum and Braverman discovered that both addictions and hyperactivity disorders stem from the same deficiencies in brain chemicals, called neurotransmitters. The characteristic of hyperactivity and addiction resulting from lacking neurotransmitters has been dubbed the Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) by Dr. Blum.

Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)
RDS refers to the breakdown of a cascade of neurotransmitters in the brain in which one reaction triggers another — the reward cascade — and resultant craving/hyperactivity. To attenuate the craving and hyperactivity, Dr. Blum (the brain and genetics expert) consulted with Dr. Braverman (the amino acids expert) to define a specific regimen ofamino acids to satisfy the brain’s needs and reduce the feelings of craving and hyperactivity. The following is an overview of the amino acid formulation with an explanation of each nutrient’s role in the brain reward cascade.
Constituents of the Amino Acid Formula
NutrientRestored brain chemical(s)Expected results
DL-PhenylalanineEnkephalins, EndorphinsReward stimulation. Anti-craving. Mild anti-depression. Mild improved energy and focus. D-Phenylalanine promotes pain relief, increases pleasure.
L-TyrosineDopamine, NorepinepherineReward stimulation. Anti-craving.Anti-depression. Increased energy.Improved mental focus.
5-hydroxytryptophanSerotoninAnti-craving. Anti-depression. Antiinsomnia.Improved appetite control.Improvement in alll mood and otherserotonin deficiency symptoms.
L-GlutamineGABA, fuel source for brainAnti-craving. Anti-stress. Levels bloodsugar and mood.
Betaine HClFacilitates digestion of amino acids.

Clinical Studies Overview
Key Points of Evidence to Be Discussed
Several decades of research and hundreds of published clinical studies prove the efficacy of the ingredients in BaselineHPT for memory and cognitive performance. Selected studies will be discussed on the following pages. These studies have revealed the following facts:
Clinical Studies: Structure/Function Claims
5-HTP is Clinically Proven to Improve Long-Term Memory

5-HTP Increases Serotonin Levels

YearTitleAuthorsConclusions

 

1998

 

5-Hydroxytryptophan: A Clinically-Effective Serotonin Precursor

Alternative Medicine Review, Vol.
3, No. 4 pp. 271-280
(Scientific review)

 

 

Timothy C. Birdsall*

* Thorne Research, Inc.

 

"5-HTP is well absorbed from an oral dose, with about 70 percent ending up in the bloodstream. It easily crosses the blood-brain barrier and effectively increases central nervous system (CNS) synthesis of serotonin."

Key Idea: A professional review of 58 clinical studies spanning 26 years demonstrated that 5-HTP is an effective precursor of serotonin that easily crosses the blood-brain barrier, and is efficiently absorbed in an oral dose.

1974Regulation of Serotonin Synthesis

Life Sciences, Vol. 15, No. 9 pp.
1533-1548

 

Michael Hamon, Jacques Glowinski*

* Groupe NB, INSERM U.114, Collège de France

"Tryptophan is taken up in serotoninergic neurons by an active mechanism. The amino acid is then hyroxylated into 5- hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) by the action of tryptophan hydroxylase...Finally, 5-HTP is decarboxylated into 5-HT [serotonin] by 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase."

Key Idea: In a comprehensive review of the chemical conversion of tryptophan to serotonin, researchers report that 5-HTP is the direct precursor of 5-HT (serotonin).

1957Increase in Tissue Serotonin Following Administration of its Precursor 5- Hydroxytryptophan


The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 224 pp. 803-810

 

Sidney Udenfriend, Herbert Weissbach, Donald F. Bogdanski*

* Laboratory of Chemical Pharmacology, National Heart Institute, National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (Bethesda, Maryland)

"5HTP…localizes in many tissues, including brain, and is gradually decarboxylated to serotonin. As a result, the concentration of serotonin is elevated in a number of tissues, including brain, where as high as 10 times the normal levels are reached...5HTP can rapidly penetrate into almost all body tissues, including the brain, and yield serotonin in those organs."

Key Idea: Scientists at the United States Department of Health have shown that 5-HTP increases serotonin levels in the brain.

20042004 Selective effects of acute serotonin and catecholamine depletion on memory in healthy women

Journal of Psychopharmacology , Vol. 18(1) pp. 32-40

(Double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design)

 

Ben J. Harrison*, James S. Oliver**, Trevor R. Norman**, Graham D. Burrows**, Keith A. Wesnes, Pradeep J. Nathan*

Neuropsychopharmacology Laboratory, Brain Sciences Institute, Swinburne University of Technology ** University of Melbourne, Department of Psychiatry, Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre (Melbourne, Australia)

"Tryptophan depletion [which lowers serotonin] impaired declarative memory consolidation on a structured word-learning task, while tyrosine and phenylalanine depletion [which lowers catecholamines], acting to lower brain dopamine availability, impaired spatial working memory…These findings suggest that low brain serotonin versus dopamine selectively impairs memory performance in humans."

Key Idea: Researchers at the University of Melbourne have linked low levels of serotonin to impaired fact-based and event-based memory.

1999Tryptophan depletion in normal volunteers produces selective impairment in memory consolidation

Psychopharmacology , Vol. 141 pp. 362-369

(Double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design)

 

Wim J. Riedel*, Tineke Klaassen*, Nicolaas E.P. Deutz**, Astrid van Someren*, Herman M. van Praag*

* Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Brain and Behaviour Institute, Maastricht University, Maastricht The Netherlands ** Department of Surgery, Maastricht University (Maastricht, The Netherlands)

"Tryptophan depletion [which lowers serotonin] specifically impaired long-term memory performance in all subjects: delayed recall performance, recognition sensistivity, and recognition reaction times were all significantly impaired after tryptophan depletion relative to placebo."

Key Idea: Researchers at Maastricht University in The Netherlands demonstrated that low serotonin levels impair long-term memory.

Tyrosine is Clinically Proven to Improve Cognition & Attention in the Elderly

Tyrosine Depletion Reduces Dopamine Levels
2005The effects of acute tyrosine and phenylalanine depletion on spatial working memory and planning in healthy volunteers are predicted by changes in striatal dopamine levels

Psychopharmacology, Vol. 180 pp. 654-663

(Double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design)

 

Mitul A. Mehta*, Deepa Gumaste, Andrew J. Montgomery, Sarah F.B. McTavish**, Paul M. Grasby

* Neuroimaging Research Group, Centre for Neuroimaging Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College (London, UK) ** Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford University (Oxford, UK)

"TPD [tyrosine and phenylalanine depletion] produced a clear reduction in tyrosine and phenylalanine availability to the brain...changes in spatial working memory and planning accuracy after TPD showed a highly significant relationship with the changes in striatal DA [dopamine] levels."

Key Idea: Researchers at Oxford University and the Institute of Psychiatry at London's King's College have demonstrated a direct link between tyrosine depletion and low dopamine levels.

2001Tyrosine depletion attenuates dopamine function in healthy volunteers

Psychopharmacology, Vol. 154 pp. 105-111

(Double-blind crossover design)

 

C.J. Harmer*, Sarah F.B. McTavish*, L. Clark*, G.M. Goodwin*, P.J. Cowen

* Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford University (Oxford, UK)

"Plasma prolactin levels rose following the tyrosine-free drink relative to the balanced mixture [without tyrosine], indicative of decreased dopamine neurotransmission within the hypothalamus. Following the tyrosine-free drink, volunteers were impaired at spatial recognition memory and spatial working memory."

Key Idea: An Oxford University study demonstrated that depletion of tyrosine decreased dopamine neurotransmission, which impaired memory.

1988Tyrosine: Effects on Catecholamine Release

Brain Research Bulletin , Vol. 21 pp. 473-477

 

Ian C. Atworth*, Matthew J. During*, Richard J. Wurtman*

* Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge, Massachusetts)

"Tyrosine administration did indeed cause a dose related increase in extracellular fluid dopamine levels with minor elevations in levels of DOPAC and HVA…Supplemental tyrosine - given in doses which need not elevate plasma tyrosine beyond its physiological range - can indeed enhance the release of dopamine from nigrostriatal neurons."

Key Idea: A study at the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at M.I.T. revealed that tyrosine supplementation increases the release of dopamine in the brain.

2000Age-Related Cognitive Deficits Mediated by Changes in the Striatal Dopamine System

American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 157, No. 4, pp. 635-637

 

Lars Bäckman*, Nathalie Ginovart*, Roger A. Dixon*, Tarja-Brita Robins Whalin*, Ake Wahlin*, Christer Halldin*, Lars Farde*

* Department of Psychology, Uppsala University (Uppsala, Sweden)

"...D2 [dopamine receptor] emerged as the stronger predictor of performance across all tasks. Thus, age-related changes in the striatal dopamine system serve as a powerful mediator of the cognitive losses that occur during the normal aging process...episodic memory was strongly related to D2 binding...Thus, the strong relationship observed between D2 binding and memory performance may reflect a direct influence of striatal function on higher cognitive abilities."

Key Idea: A team of Swedish researchers learned that the proper function of dopamine receptors is a key factor in age-related memory performance.

1998Association Between Decline in Brain Dopamine Activity With Age and Cognitive and Motor Impairment in Healthy Individuals

American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 155, No. 3, pp. 344-349

 

Nora D. Volkow, Ruben C. Gur, Gene-Jack Wang, Joanna S. Fowler, Paul J. Moberg, Yu- Shin Ding, Robert Hitzemann, Gwenn Smith, Jean Logan

The Department of Psychiatry, State University of New York at Stony Brook The Brain-Behavior Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

"This study shows that the reductions in brain dopamine activity that occur as part of aging are associated with changes in motor as well as cognitive functions...This study also documents an association between dopamine measures and performance on behavioral measures of frontal lobe functioning - more specifically, tests of executive function requiring abstraction and mental flexibility and attention and response inhibition...our results serve to further corroborate an involvement of the dopamine system in the cognitive deficits of the elderly."

Key Idea: Scientists at The University of Pennsylvania and SUNY Stony Brook have discovered a link between dopamine levels and cognitive function in the elderly.

2005Frontal and Temporal Dopamine Release during Working Memory and Attention Tasks in Healthy Humans: a Positron Emission Tomography Study Using the High-Affinity Dopamine D2 Receptor Ligand [11C]FLB 457

The Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 25, No. 10, pp. 2471-2477

 

Sargo Aalto*, Anna Brück*, Matti Laine**, Kjell Någren*, Juha O. Rinne*

* Turku PET Centre and Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku (Turku, Finland) ** Department of Psychology, Åbo Akademi University (Åbo, Finland)

"…the verbal working memory task reduced D2 (dopamine) receptor availability in the ventrolateral frontal cortex bilaterally and in the left medial temporal structures (amygdala, hippocampus), suggesting that dopamine release in these regions might have a specific role in working memory...increased dopamine release in the right ventrolateral frontal cortex and the left ventral anterior cingulate during the working memory task was associated with faster and more stable working memory performance, respectively."

Key Idea: Using P.E.T. brain scans, researchers in Finland discovered a distinct association between dopamine release and performance of memory speed, memory stability and concentration.

2002Dopamine and the regulation of cognition and attention

Progress in Neurobiology, Vol. 67, No. 1, pp. 53-83

 

André Nieoullon*

* Neurobiology Unit at the CNRS, Université de La Méditerranée (Marseille Cedex 20, France)

"Dopamine (DA) acts as a key neurotransmitter in the brain...a key neuroregulator which contributes to behavioral adaptation and to anticipatory processes necessary for preparing voluntary action consequent upon intention. All together, it can be suggested that a correlation exists between DA innervation and expression of cognitive capacities. Altering the dopaminergic transmission could, therefore, contribute to cognitive impairment."

Key Idea: A review of 342 studies conducted at the Université de La Méditerranée in France demonstrated that there is a direct correlation between dopamine transmission and cognitive performance.

Glutamine is Clinically Proven to Promote a Calm, Focused State

Glutamine Increases GABA Levels
2007Oral L-glutamine increases GABA levels in striatal tissue and extracellular fluid

The FASEB Journal , Vol. 21, pp. 1227-1232

 

Lei Wang*, Timothy J. Maher**, Richard J. Wurtman*

* Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge, Massachusetts) ** Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences (Boston, Massachusetts)

"L-Glutamine administration significantly increased extracellular fluid GABA concentrations by 30%, and enhanced the response evoked by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid alone (70%) to 120% over baseline. Striatal GABA levels increased significantly 2.5 h after oral L-glutamine."

Key Idea: M.I.T. researchers demonstrated that oral doses of Lglutamine significantly increase GABA levels in the brain.

1993Direct demonstration by [13C]NMR spectroscopy that glutamine from astrocytes is a precursor for GABA synthesis in neurons

Neurochemistry International, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 19-29

 

U. Sonnewald (1, 2), N. Westergaard (3), A. Schousboe (3), J.S. Svendsen (4), G. Unsgård (2) and S.B. Petersen (1, 5, 6)

1.) MR-Center, SINTEF UNIMED, (Trondheim, Norway)
2.) University of Trondheim, Institute of Cancer Research (Trondheim, Norway)
3.) PharmaBiotech Research Center, Department of Biological Sciences, Royal Danish School of Pharmacy (Copenhagen, Denmark)
4.) University of Tromsø, Institute of Mathematical and Physical Science, (Tromsø, Norway)
5.) University of Århus, Department of Chemistry (Århus, Denmark)
6.) Norwegian Institute of Technology, Department of Biotechnology (Trondheim, Norway)

 

"Spectra of media removed from [cultures of cerebral cortical astrocytes and neurons, as well as neurons growing on top of the astrocytes] revealed that likely precursor candidates for GABA were glutamine and citrate. The importance of glutamine is further substantiated by the finding that inhibition of glutamine synthetase, an enzyme present in astrocytes only, significantly decreased the labeling of GABA in co-cultures incubated with 2-[13C]acetate."

Key Idea: A group of Norwegian researchers showed that glutamine is a key precursor for GABA production.

1991GABA Synthesis in Brain Slices is Dependent on Glutamine Produced in Astrocytes

Neurochemical Research , Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 151-156

 

Gino Battaglioli (1), David L. Martin (1,2)

1.) Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research, New York State Department of Health (Albany, NY)
2.) Department of Environmental Health and Toxicology, School of Public Health State University of New York at Albany (Albany, NY)

 

"Added 500-μM glutamine increased the rate of GABA synthesis by 50%, indicating that glutamate decarboxylase is not saturated in brain slices...These results suggest that glutamine produced by astrocytes is a quantitatively important precursor of GABA synthesis in cortical slices."

Key Idea: Scientists at the New York State Department of Health demonstrated that glutamine is an important precursor of GABA synthesis.

2006Relaxation and immunity enhancement effects of γ- Aminobutyric acid (GABA) administration in humans

BioFactors , Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 201- 208

(Abstract)

 

Adham M. Abdou (1), S. Higashiguchi (1), K. Horie (1), Mujo Kim (1), H. Hatta (2), H. Yokogoshi (3)

1.) Department of Research and Development, Pharma Foods International Co. Ltd. (Kyoto, Japan)
2.) Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyoto Women's University (Kyoto, Japan)
3.) Food and Nutritional Sciences Department, University of Shizuoka (Shizuoka, Japan)

 

"The effect of orally administrated γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) on relaxation and immunity during stress has been investigated in humans. Two studies were conducted...After 60 minutes of administration, GABA significantly increases alpha waves and decreases beta waves compared to water or L-theanine. These findings denote that GABA not only induces relaxation but also reduces anxiety...GABA could work effectively as a natural relaxant and its effects could be seen within 1 hour of its administration to induce relaxation and diminish anxiety."

Key Idea: Japanese researchers demonstrated that oral doses of GABA reduces anxiety and promotes relaxation.

2001Reductions in Occipital Cortex GABA Levels in Panic Disorder Detected With 1H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Archives of General Psychiatry , Vol. 58, pp. 556-561

(American Medical Association Journal)

 

Andrew W. Goddard (1), Graeme F. Mason (1, 2), Ahmad Almai (1), Douglas L. Rothman (3, 4), Kevin L. Behar (5), Ognen A. C. Petroff (5), Dennis S. Charney, John H. Krystal (1)

1.) Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine (New Haven, Connecticut)
2.) Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University School of Medicine (New Haven, Connecticut)
3.) Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine (New Haven, Connecticut)
4.) Department of Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine (New Haven, Connecticut)
5.) Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine (New Haven, Connecticut)
6.) National Institute of Mental Health (Rockville, Maryland)

 

"Patients with panic disorder had a 22% reduction in total occipital cortex GABA concentration (GABA plus homocarnosine) compared with controls. This finding was present in 12 of 14 patient-control pairs and was not solely accounted for by medication history. There were no significant correlations between occipital cortex GABA levels and measures of illness or state anxiety...Panic disorder is associated with reductions in total occipital cortex GABA levels."

Key Idea: A recent study at the Yale University School of Medicine demonstrated a relationship between GABA levels and panic disorder. Overall, the tests showed a 22% reduction in GABA levels in the participants with panic disorder compared with those without panic disorder.

Thiamine Improves Cognitive Function By Boosting Neurotransmitters in the Elderly

Thiamine Improves Cognitive Function
1997Thiamine supplementation: mood and cognitive function

Psychopharmacology, Vol. 129, pp. 66-71

(Randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled design)

 

David Benton (1), Rebecca Griffiths (1), Jurg Haller (2)

1.) Department of Psychology, University of Wales Swansea (Swansea, UK)
2.) Department of Human Nutrition Research, F. Hoffman-La Roche (Basel, Switzerland)

 

"An improvement in thiamine status was associated with reports of being more clearheaded, composed and energetic...As the body has only small stores of thiamine, there is a risk of deficiency if the level of intake is reduced for only a few weeks...Wernicke's disease is a neurological disorder due to thiamine deficiency, that is characterized by...confusion and recent memory loss."

Key Idea: A report published in Psychopharmacology revealed that thiamine levels are clearly associated with mental clarity and mental energy.

1997Nutritional status and cognitive functioning in a normally aging sample: a 6-y reassessment.

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 65, pp. 20-29

(Long-term, human clinical)

 

Asenath La Rue, Kathleen M. Koehler, Sharon J. Wayne, Stephen J. Chiulli, Kathleen Y. Haaland, and Philip J. Garry

* Departments of Psychiatry, Pathology, and Neurology, the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, and the Veterans Affairs Medical Center (Albuquerque, New Mexico)

 

"Several significant associations (P < 0.05) were observed between cognition and concurrent vitamin status, including better abstraction performance with higher biochemical status and dietary intake of thiamine...For both thiamine and riboflavin, concurrent dietary intake was positively correlated with Abstraction test performance..."

Key Idea: In a 6-year clinical study, higher thiamine levels were positively associated with improved cognition performance - particularly in the abstraction test.

1979Effect of thiamine deficiency on levels of putative amino acid transmitters in affected regions of the brain

Journal of Neurochemistry, Vol. 33, pp. 575-577

 

Edith Hamel*, Roger F. Butterworth*, Andre Barbeau*

* Department of Neurobiology, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal (Montreal, Quebec)

 

"The most significant changes in concentrations of amino acids in medulla oblongata, cerebellum and midbrain regions of the brains of symptomatic thiamine-deficient rats are the marked decreases in glutamic and aspartic acids shown in Table 1" (Table 1: Identifies initial cerebellar Glutamine levels in a normal diet as 5.96 ± 0.14, and in thiamine deficiency as 5.14 ± 0.28; cerebellar GABA in normal diet as 2.48 ± 0.19 and in thiamine deficiency as 1.84 ± 0.14; and cerebellar Glutamate in normal diet as 10.47 ± 0.16 and in thiamine deficiency as 7.57 ± 0.20 - all can be considered significant reductions.)

Key Idea: Thiamine deficient diets caused significant reductions in brain levels of GABA, glutamine and glutamate in several areas of the brain, including the cerebellum.

1982Neurotransmitter function in thiamine-deficiency encephalopathy

Neurochemistry International, Vol. 4, No. 6, pp. 449-464 (Critique by M.K. Gaitonde on pp. 465-466)

 

M.K. Gaitonde (1), R.F. Butterworth (2)

1.) Department of Biochemistry, St George's Hospital Medical School (London, UK)
2.) Laboratory of Neurochemistry, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, University of Montreal (Montreal, Quebec, Canada)

 

" There is also good evidence to suggest that thiamine deprivation selectively affects cerebellar afferent and efferent systems. Included in these are a loss of serotoninergic mossy fibres and of the functional integrity of glutamatergic granule cells. In addition, abnormalities of both nerve terminals and glial cells are found in lateral vestibular nucleus and it has been proposed that a loss of Purkinje cell terminals and concomitant decreases of pontine GABA may reflect these changes."

Key Idea: Thiamine deprivation decreases cerebellum levels of serotonin brain inputs (mossy fibers) and GABA .

1994Thiamine Deficiency in Hospitalized Elderly Patients

Gerontology, Vol. 40, pp. 18-24

(Abstract)

 

S.T. O'Keeffe (1), W.P. Tormey (2), R. Glasgow (2), J.N. Lavan (1)

1.) Department of Geriatric Medicine, Beaumont Hospital (Dublin, Ireland)
2.) Department of Chemical Pathology, Beaumont Hospital (Dublin, Ireland)

 

"We examined thiamine levels in 36 consecutive non-demented, community-dwelling patients admitted to an acute geriatric unit. Marginal thiamine deficiency [thiamine pyrophosphate effect (TPPE) 15-24%] was present in 11 (31%) and definite thiamine deficiency (TPPE > 25%) in 6 (17%) patients. Delirium occurred in 6/19 (32%) patients with normal thiamine status and 13/17 (76%) thiaminedeficient patients (p < 0.025, (X2 test)...Thiamine deficiency is common in elderly patients admitted to hospital and may contribute to the development of delirium."

Key Idea: A clinical study by Irish researchers demonstrated that nearly 1-in-2 elderly patients exhibited a thiamine deficiency.

1990Thiamine Status of Healthy and Institutionalized Elderly Subjects: Analysis of Dietary Intake and Biochemical Indices

Age and Ageing Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 325-329

(Abstract)

 

Nicholas P. O'Rourke*, Valda W. Bunker*, Anita J. Thomas*, Paul M. Finglas*, Angela L. Bailey*, Barbara E. Clayton*

*University Department of Geriatric Medicine, Southampton General Hospital (Southampton, Hampshire, UK)

 

"Thiamine status was assessed in healthy young and elderly subjects and institutionalized elderly patients by measuring dietary intake, erythrocyte levels of thiamine and the activity of the thiaminedependent enzyme, erythrocyte transketolase, with and without the addition of excess thiamine pyrophosphate (the TPP effect)...The institutionalized elderly patients had a low intake of thiamine compared with the healthy elderly as well as abnormal biochemical indices suggestive of suboptimal thiamine status."

Key Idea: A study performed by researchers in the United Kingdom showed that elderly, hospitalized patients exhibited a thiamine deficiency.

Vitamin B-6 Improves Long-Term Memory

Vitamin B-6 Improves Memory
2005Vitamin B-6 supplementation in elderly men: effects on mood, memory, performance and mental effort

Psychopharmacology, Vol. 109, No. 4, pp. 489-496

 

J. B. Deijen (1) , E. J. van der Beek (2), J. F. Orlebeke (1), H. van den Berg (2)

1.) Department of Psychology, Psychophysiology Division, Vrije Universiteit (Amsterdam, The Netherlands )
2.) Department of Human Nutrition, TNO Toxicology and Nutrition Institute (Zeist, The Netherlands)

 

"This study evaluates the effects of vitamin B-6 supplementation (20 mg pyridoxine HCL daily for 3 months) on mood and performance in 38 self-supporting healthy men, aged between 70–79 years. Effects were compared with 38 controls who received placebo and were matched for age, plasma pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) concentration and intelligence score. Before and after drug intervention vitamin B-6 status was determined, and mood and performance were measured by means of a computerized testing system...Positive effects of vitamin B-6 supplementation were only found with respect to memory, especially concerning long-term memory."

Key Idea: Researchers in Amsterdam disvocered that vitamin B-6 supplementation has a positive effect on long-term memory.

1996Relations of vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, folate, and homocysteine to cognitive performance in the Normative Aging Study

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 63, pp. 306-314

(Study design approved by the Tufts University/New England Medical Center Human Investigation Review Committee)

 

Karen M. Riggs (1), Avron Spiro III, Katherine Tucker, David Rush

1.) Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University (Botson, Massachusetts)

 

"Higher concentrations of vitamin B-6 were related to better performance on two measures of memory...However, homocysteine and vitamin B-6 concentrations were not associated...The highest quartile of vitamin B-6 concentration was related to the best performance on the Backward Digit Span Test, and performance improved on the Activity Memory Test with increased plasma vitamin B-6 concentration...Vitamin B-6 is a cofactor in the production of neurotransmitters including dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and defects in myelin in the central nervous system."

Key Idea: Research conducted by the USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University showed a direct correlation between high levels of vitamin B-6 and improved memory performance.

Folate Improves Cognition and Memory in the Elderly

Folate Improves Cognitive Function & Memory
2007Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: a randomised, double blind, controlled trial

Lancet, Vol. 369 pp. 208-216

(Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design)

 

Jane Durga (1, 2), Martin P.J. van Boxtel (3), Evert G. Schouten (1), Frans J. Kok (1), Jelle Jolles (3), Martijn B. Katan (2), Petra Verhoef (1, 2)

1.) Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University (Wageningen, The Netherlands)
2.) Wageningen Centre for Food Sciences (Wageningen, The Netherlands)
3.) Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Brain and Behavior Institute, Maastricht University (Maastricht, The Netherlands)

 

"In 818 older adults, daily oral folic acid supplementation for 3 years beneficially affected global cognitive function, and specifically memory, and information processing; functions that are sensitive to ageing...folic acid supplementation might beneficially affect both memory and speed simultaneously, since high concentrations of homocysteine have been associated with atrophy of the hippocampus, an area of the brain which is important for memory consolidation."

Key Idea: A clinical study published in The Lancet revealed that daily supplementation with folic acid (or Vitamin B-9) improves memory and information processing - two cognitive functions that have been shown to decline with aging.

2009Folate nutrition is related to neuropsychological functions in the elderly

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 63, pp. 306-314

(Study design approved by the Tufts University/New England Medical Center Human Investigation Review Committee)

 

Karen M. Riggs (1), Avron Spiro III, Katherine Tucker, David Rush

1.) Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University (Boston, Massachusetts)

 

"Lower concentrations of vitamin B-12 (p=0.04) and folate (p=0.003) and higher concentrations of homocysteine (p=0.0009) were associated with poorer spatial copying skills...Concentrations of plasma homocysteine were negatively associated with blood concentrations of vitamin B-12 and folate. Vitamin B-12 and folate are required as coenzymes in the synthesis of serotonin and catecholamine neurotransmitters."

Key Idea: Research conducted by the USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University showed a direct correlation between low levels of folate and raised levels of homocysteine, which reduces spatial copying abilities.

Vitamin B-12 Improves Cognition and Memory in the Elderly

Folate Improves Cognitive Function & Memory
2004Vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency in later life

Age and Ageing, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 34-41

(Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design)

 

Robert Clarke (1), J. Grimley Evans (1), J. Schneede (2), E. Nexo (3), C. Bates (4), A. Fletcher (5), A. Prentice (4), C. Johnston (1), P.M. Ueland (2), H. Refsum (2), P. Sherliker (1), J. Birks (1), G. Whitlock (1), E. Breeze (5), J.M. Scott (6)

1.) Clinical Trial Service Unit, Division of Clinical Geratology, University Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford (Oxford, UK)
2.) Department of Pharmacology, University of Bergen (Norway)
3.) Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aarhus University Hospital (Aarhus, Denmark
4.) MRC Human Nutrition Research (Cambridge, UK)
5.) Centre for Ageing and Public Health, London School of Hygieneand Tropical Medicine (London, UK)
6.) Department of Biochemistry, Trinity College (Dublin, Ireland)

 

"The prevalence of metabolically significant folate deficiency increased with age in all three studies (P<0.05). On average, about 1 in 20 people aged 65-74 years, and almost 1 in 10 people aged 75 years or greater had metabolically significant folate deficiency...The prevalence of both vitamin B12 and folate deficiency increases with age...Treatment with vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation is safe, inexpensive and effective if administered before the onset of symptoms. "

Key Idea: A study at Oxford University determined that folate deficiency is common in the elderly, with nearly 10% of people over the age of 75 experiencing significant decline. The researchers also reported that folate supplementation is safe, inexpensive and effective.

2006Low Folate and the Risk of Cognitive Decline and Functional Deficits in the Very Old: The Monzino 80-plus Study

Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 502- 508

(Door-to-door, population-based survey)

 

Mauro Tettamanti*, Maria Teresa Garri*, Alessandro Nobili*, Emma Riva*, Ugo Lucca*

* Laboratory of Geriatric Neuropsychiatry, Department of Neuroscience, Instituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri" (Milan, Italy)

 

compared with the healthy elderly as well as abnormal biochemical indices suggestive of suboptimal thiamine status." Key Idea: A study performed by researchers in the United Kingdom showed that elderly, hospitalized patients exhibited a thiamineconcentration has a sizeable, independent, curvilinear relation with cognitive and functional performance in the very old."

Key Idea: A survey of an Italian population published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition demonstrated that low folate levels has a significant and independent relationship with cognitive decline in the elderly.

2007Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 86, pp. 1384-1391

(Longitudinal cohort study)

 

Robert Clarke (1), Jacqueline Birks (2), Ebba Nexo (3), Per M Ueland (4), Joern Schneede (5), John Scott (6), Anne Molloy (6), John Grimley Evans (2)

1.) Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford (Oxford, UK)
2.) Division of Clinical Geratology, University of Oxford (Oxford, UK)
3.) Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aarhus University Hospital (Aarhus, Denmark
4.) Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen (Bergen, Norway)
5.) Department of Clinical Chemistry, Umea University Hospital (Umea, Sweden) 6.) Department of Biochemistry, Trinity College (Dublin, Ireland)

 

"Low vitamin B-12 status was associated with more rapid cognitive decline...This longitudinal cohort study showed that low serum concentrations of holoTC (the biologically active fraction of vitamin B-12) and high MMA (a metabolic indicator of vitamin B-12 function) both reflecting low vitamin B-12 status were each independently and significantly associated with a more rapid cognitive decline during a 10-y period...a doubling in the serum concentration of holoTC, achievable by oral vitamin B-12 supplementation, was associated with a slowing in the rate of age-associated cognitive decline by about one third."

Key Idea: A 10-year population study conducted at Oxford University revealed that low vitamin B-12 levels are associated with more rapid cognitive decline.

1996Relations of vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, folate, and homocysteine to cognitive performance in the Normative Aging Study

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 63, pp. 306-314

(Study design approved by the Tufts University/New England Medical Center Human Investigation Review Committee)

 

Karen M. Riggs (1), Avron Spiro III, Katherine Tucker, David Rush

1.) Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University (Botson, Massachusetts)

 

"Lower concentrations of vitamin B-12 (p=0.04) and folate (p=0.003) and higher concentrations of homocysteine (p=0.0009) were associated with poorer spatial copying skills...Concentrations of plasma homocysteine were negatively associated with blood concentrations of vitamin B-12 and folate. Vitamin B-12 and folate are required as coenzymes in the synthesis of serotonin and catecholamine neurotransmitters."

Key Idea: Research conducted by the USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University showed a direct correlation between low levels of vitamin B-12 and raised levels of homocysteine, which reduces spatial copying abilities.

2004Vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency in later life

Age and Ageing, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 34-41

(Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design)

 

Robert Clarke (1), J. Grimley Evans (1), J. Schneede (2), E. Nexo (3), C. Bates (4), A. Fletcher (5), A. Prentice (4), C. Johnston (1), P.M. Ueland (2), H. Refsum (2), P. Sherliker (1), J. Birks (1), G. Whitlock (1), E. Breeze (5), J.M. Scott (6)

1.) Clinical Trial Service Unit, Division of Clinical Geratology, University Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford (Oxford, UK)
2.) Department of Pharmacology, University of Bergen (Norway)
3.) Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aarhus University Hospital (Aarhus, Denmark
4.) MRC Human Nutrition Research (Cambridge, UK)
5.) Centre for Ageing and Public Health, London School of Hygieneand Tropical Medicine (London, UK)
6.) Department of Biochemistry, Trinity College (Dublin, Ireland)

 

"The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency increased with age in all three studies, whether estimated as low B12 levels or as metabolically significant B12 deficiency. On average, about 1 in 20 people aged 65-74 had low vitamin B12 concentration levels or had metabolically significant vitamin B12 deficiency. About 1 in 10 people aged 75 years or olderhad low vitamin B12 levels or metabolically significant vitamin B12 deficiency...The prevalence of both vitamin B12 and folate deficiency increases with age...Treatment with vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation is safe, inexpensive and effective if administered before the onset of symptoms."

Key Idea: A study at Oxford University determined that vitamin B-12 deficiency is common in the elderly, with nearly 10% of people over the age of 75 experiencing significant decline. The researchers also reported that B-12 supplementation is safe, inexpensive and effective.

2004Vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency in later life

Age and Ageing, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 34-41

(Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design)

 

Robert Clarke (1), J. Grimley Evans (1), J. Schneede (2), E. Nexo (3), C. Bates (4), A. Fletcher (5), A. Prentice (4), C. Johnston (1), P.M. Ueland (2), H. Refsum (2), P. Sherliker (1), J. Birks (1), G. Whitlock (1), E. Breeze (5), J.M. Scott (6)

1.) Clinical Trial Service Unit, Division of Clinical Geratology, University Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford (Oxford, UK)
2.) Department of Pharmacology, University of Bergen (Norway)
3.) Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aarhus University Hospital (Aarhus, Denmark
4.) MRC Human Nutrition Research (Cambridge, UK)
5.) Centre for Ageing and Public Health, London School of Hygieneand Tropical Medicine (London, UK)
6.) Department of Biochemistry, Trinity College (Dublin, Ireland)

"The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency increased with age in all three studies, whether estimated as low B12 levels or as metabolically significant B12 deficiency. On average, about 1 in 20 people aged 65-74 had low vitamin B12 concentration levels or had metabolically significant vitamin B12 deficiency. About 1 in 10 people aged 75 years or olderhad low vitamin B12 levels or metabolically significant vitamin B12 deficiency...The prevalence of both vitamin B12 and folate deficiency increases with age...Treatment with vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation is safe, inexpensive and effective if administered before the onset of symptoms."

Key Idea: A study at Oxford University determined that vitamin B-12 deficiency is common in the elderly, with nearly 10% of people over the age of 75 experiencing significant decline. The researchers also reported that B-12 supplementation is safe, inexpensive and effective.